Neutrophil Gelatinase–Associated Lipocalin

There are no early markers for acute or chronic renal disease. Serum creatinine levels rise only after there has been significant renal impairment and injury. It is important to note that the earlier renal disease or injury is identified, the more successfully it can be treated. Early treatment also helps to lower the morbidity associated with the disease. This is particularly important in patients who have serious nonrenal disease (e.g., heart surgery, renal transplant, sepsis). In these patients, severe acute kidney injury (AKI) increases morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients.

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Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein expressed by activated neutrophils. The detection of lactoferrin in a fecal sample therefore serves as a surrogate marker for inflammatory white blood cells (WBCs) in the intestinal tract. WBCs in the stool are not stable and may be easily destroyed by temperature changes, delays in testing, and toxins within the stool. As a result, WBCs may not be detected by common microscopic methods. Lactoferrin assay has allowed the identification of inflammatory cells in the stool without the use of microscopy.

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Complement Assay

Serum complement is a group of globulin proteins that act as enzymes. These enzymes facilitate the immunologic and inflammatory response. The complement system is important for destroying foreign cells and isolating “foreign” antigens. The total complement, sometimes labeled CH50, is made up of nine major components, C1 through C9. Besides these major components, there are some subcomponents and “inhibitor” components involved in the system. Classic complement activation starts when an immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgG antibody binds with the C1 q subcomponent of C1. C1 activates C4, which activates C2 and so on to C9. There are also alternative pathways for the activation of this system.

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Human Lymphocyte Antigen

What are Antigens?

Antigen stands for Antibody Generator.Antigens are molecules that trigger an immune response which leads to the generation of antibodies depending on the type of the Antigen itself.


There are two types of Antigens; there are that are created by the human body depending on the person’s genetic code, this type is known as “Self Antigen“. A person’s immune system doesn’t attack his own self antigens. Another kind of antigens are those foreign to the body which the body is exposed to the surrounding environment, they are known as “Non-self Antigens“. The immune system is programmed to attack any object that has non-self antigens. In other words, the immune system can identify if a cell or a group of cells belong to the body or if they are foreign objects that must be fought against. And based on the type of antigens found within the object, the necessary types of White Blood Cells are created to treat the threat.

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HIV Serology Test

HIV is also known as human T-lymphotrophic virus, type III (HTLV-III), or the lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV). There are two types of human immunodeficiency viruses, types 1 and 2. Type 1 is most prevalent in the United States and Western Europe. Type 2 is mostly limited to Western African nations. Those at high risk for AIDS include sexually active male homosexuals, bisexual men and women with multiple partners, intravenous (IV) drug abusers, persons receiving blood products containing HIV, and infants exposed to the virus during gestation and delivery.

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Cell Surface Immunophenotyping

Cell Surface Immunophenotyping is a test used to detect the progressive depletion of CD4 T lymphocytes, which is associated with an increased likelihood of clinical complications from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Test results can indicate if a patient with AIDS is at risk for developing opportunistic infections. It is also used to confirm the diagnosis of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and to differentiate AML from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).

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What Does HIV Stand For?

What is HIV?

HIV stands for Human Immunity Virus. Human Immunity Virus infects the Macrophages (Monocytes in its most mature state), and the T type of White Blood Cells Lymphocytes leading to a chronic Low White Blood Cells Count (Leukopenia).



 How is HIV Transmitted?

In most conditions, Human Immunity Virus is sexually transmitted virus. HIV can be transferred either by human semen from a male to a partner, or by the vaginal fluid from a female to a partner during an unprotected sexual intercourse. Vaginal sex is not the only way HIV is sexually transmitted. HIV can be transmitted in any sexual activity that includes exposure to body fluids, for example, unprotected oral sex is an activity that causes high HIV transmission opportunity. Continue reading “What Does HIV Stand For?” »


Neutropenic Precautions

Neutropenic Precautions are Infection Control Nursing Procedures that are applied when patient has a high risk of bacterial infections due to low Neutrophil count (Neutropenia).


Since the Neutrophil fights infections and defends the body against pyogenic bacteria (Bacteria that doesn’t cause Pus), the body or the immune system may not be able to fight the invading microorganisms if the Neutrophil produced or circulating in the blood is insufficient. Possible exposure to bacteria and infections would be very risky in such a case.


The Neutropenic Precautions are followed to guard patients with a low white blood cell count or a depressed immune system from the possibility of exposure to or contact with the infecting microorganisms. The precautions are an alternative method if increasing the white blood cells count is not possible or undesirable at the precautions are applied.

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Low Monocyte Count

Low Monocyte count is also known as Monocytopenia and it refers to the abnormal decrease of Monocytes in the circulating blood.

The normal white blood cell count of Monocytes ranges between 1100 cells/µL (5.8% of differential white blood cells count) in infants to300 cells/µL (4% of differential white blood cells count) in adults.

In addition to the main causes of Leukopenia, low Monocytes count can be a result of acute stress or glucocorticoid administration.

Immunosuppressive agents (drugs that reduce the production of white cells) and overwhelming infections will decrease the count of Monocytes in the blood.


Low Lymphocytes Count

Low Lymphocytes Count is also known as Lymphopenia.  It occurs when the Lymphocyte count is less than 1,400 cells/µL in children and less than 1,000 cells/µL in adults.


The normal white blood cell count of Lymphocytes is 5,800 cells/µL in newborns and then it increases to reach 7000 cells/µL at the first year. The count of Lymphocytes decreases again to reach 2500 cells/µL in adults.


I addition to the causes of Leukopenia, Low Lymphocytes Count is caused by stress and adrenocortical stimulation.


Low Lymphocytes Count can also be caused by Radiation Therapy and treatments with Alkylating agents.


Low Lymphocytes Count is also associated to Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (Lymph tissue cancer), Lymphosarcoma, and Terminal Uremia.